16 Laminated Viennoiserie

Because sugar is hygroscopic and can interfere with gluten development when it is more than 10% of the flour weight, add the sugar after gluten is developed to a low improved stage. Adding the sugar at this stage helps shorten the overall mixing time needed to reach an improved stage of development.
Shaping traditional croissants using triangles cut from well-chilled, fully laminated dough. Cut a notch in the center of the base, and gently stretch the triangle to lengthen before tightly rolling. Tuck the tip underneath when placing on a parchment lined sheet pan. Egg wash before and after proofing.
Determining whether or not a pastry is properly proofed based on how the dough feels when lightly pressed with a finger. A properly proofed pastry should feel tender yet slightly resistant, barely holding a finger imprint, show a visible separation of layers and appear slightly wobbly.
Dividing fully laminated, well-chilled Danish dough into perfect squares, using a pastry wheel or sharp knife to cleanly cut through the dough without damaging the lamination. Work quickly before the dough warms up, causing the butter to melt into the dough and create indistinct layers.
Shaping a pinwheel by cutting the four corners of a perfect square of dough diagonally but not cutting through the center. Fold in four alternating tips to the center, press the tips firmly so they do not proof open, and egg wash the pinwheel both before and after proofing.
Shaping a snail using well-chilled dough sprinkled in cinnamon sugar. The dough is folded in half, cut into even strips and gently stretched before tightly and evenly coiling the strip. Tuck the end underneath to form an even shape. Egg wash both before and after proofing.
Shaping a Danish into a pinwheel, diamond, half-pocket, and full pocket using squares of cold, fully laminated dough. If necessary for the shape, make clean cuts to avoid damaging the lamination. Work quickly to prevent the dough from warming and allowing the butter to melt, creating indistinct layers.
Egg wash the fully proofed, shaped Danish before lightly degassing the center to make an indentation in which to pipe the filling. Piping the filling into an indention controls where the filling will spread during baking, while egg washing contributes a golden-brown crust color.
For fast, efficient production. a sheeter mimics the action of rolling by hand to quickly roll dough to an even thickness, shortening the length of time during which dough is worked, which helps prevent the dough from warming. Dough can be rolled thinner with a sheeter than by hand.
Placing cold yet pliable butter, preferably with a fat content of 82-84%, between silicone mats and sheeting it to a uniform thickness. Do not overwork the butter or allow it to become too warm. Using a sheeter is a fast, efficient way to form butter blocks. In high production, a butter press can be used.
Pounding cold butter placed between sheets of heavy plastic with a rolling pin until it is still cold yet pliable enough to be rolled to a uniform thickness. It is important to not overwork the butter causing it to become too warm. A butter with a higher fat content of 82-84% is preferred.
The basic method of fat enclosure of placing a butter block in the center of a dough rolled out to twice the length of the butter, and folding the dough over the butter results in two layers of dough and one layer of butter. This is the easiest and most commonly used method of fat enclosure.
Using the alternate method of fat enclosure results in three layers of dough and two layers of fat which is useful for speeding up production as it creates more layers in a fewer number of folds.
When folding a laminated dough, sheet the dough in the direction of the open ends to maintain a rectangular shape. Sheet quickly yet gradually so the fat extends evenly with the dough. Because a double fold resembles a book after folding, it is also known as a book fold.
When folding a laminated dough, sheet the dough in the direction of the open ends to maintain a rectangular shape. Sheet quickly yet gradually so the fat extends evenly with the dough. Because a single fold resembles folding a business letter, it is also known as a letter fold.
Work quickly to tightly shape well-chilled, fully laminated dough. Place the croissant seam side down on a parchment-lined sheet pan. Egg wash both before and after proofing to allow the croissant to fully expand by preventing a skin from forming and to give a rich golden-brown crust color.